• Math Test paper 6 for Bank Po Exam

    REASONING Notes: Coding-Decoding

    Jul 30 • Bank, Reasoning Notes • 3727 Views

    reasoning-notes-coding-decoding

    Coding Decoding

    In any communication(verbal or nonverbal), there are always two parties i.e. Sender (The one who wants to send the data)  and Receiver(one who receives the data). We always want to send our data securely. For this purpose, we use the  mechanism of coding and decoding so that the third party (other than the sender and receiver) can never understand the communication of both the parties.

    Coding means transforming the original data into an encrypted form which follows a certain pattern.Coding is also known as  encryption.
    Decoding means converting the coded data into an original form. It is also known as Decryption.
    The coding and decoding test is setup to determine the ability of a candidate that he is capable to decipher any code or message.

    Type 1-Letter Coding

    Q1. TAP is SZO, then FREEZE is,                                (SSC CGL Tier-I 2015)

    EQDFYG            2) EQDDYD         3) ESDFYF         4) GQFDYF   
    Answer-
    (2) EQDDYD

    Q2. If the word PRINCIPAL is written as LAPICNIRP, how ADOLESCENCE can be written in that code?                                                                                                                                (SSC CHSL DEO&LDC 2014)   

    1) ECNCESELODA
    2) ECNECSLEODA
    3) ECNSCEELODA
    4) ECNECSELODA
    Answer-(4) ECNECSELODA

    Q3. In a certain Language PROSE is coded as PPOQE. How will LIGHT be coded? (SSC CGL Tier-I 2014)

    1. LIGFT        2) LGGHT        3) LLGFE        4) LGGFT
      Answer-(4) LGGFT

    Q4. If JOSEPH is coded as FKOALD,then how GEORGE will be coded in that code language?

    1. CADMNO    2) CAKNIT    3) CAKNCA    4) JAKINS    (SSC GL Tier-I 2013)
      Answer-(3) CAKNCA

    Q5. In a certain code language DHIE is written as WSRV and AEFB is written as ZVUY.How will GKLH be written in that code language?                                                                                                   (IBPS Bank PO/MT CWE-III 2013)

    Answer– TPOS

    Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:
    In a certain code Language,
    ‘Rural     and     urban  divide’    is coded as “Na    ku        za          la”
    ‘Gap    in     rural     infrastructure’ is coded as “Kt        la     vm     pi”
    ‘Urban       planning   more   important’ is coded as “ti              na           cu       bu”
    ‘More   divide   than    gap’ is coded as “Pi          cu         dm        za”                  (IBPS RRB officer Scale-I 2014)

    Q6.What is the code for ‘and’?

    1. zu    2) na    3) ku    4) la    5) cannot be determined
      Answer– ku

    Q7.What is the code for ‘gap’?
    Answer– pi

    Q8.What is the code for ‘rural distance’?

    1. zu la        2) la dm    3) pi zu        4) ku la        5) cannot be determined
      Answer– zu la

    Q9.What is the code for ‘than’?

    1. pi    2) dm    3) cu    4) zu    5) ti
      Answer– dm

    Q10.Which of the following may possibly be the code for ”infrastructure gap divide rural and urban planning’?

    1)bu ku na zu pi la cu
    2)vm la zu pi na cu ku
    3)kt bu zu pi ti vm la
    4)la ku vm kt ti bu na
    5)cannot be determined
    Answer– cannot be determined

    Type 2-Number Coding

    There are  two coding mechanism that is used in these type of questions.
    i) Alphabetical code letters are assigned to the numbers
    OR
    ii) Numerical code values are assigned to a word.

    i)Alphabetical code letters are assigned to the numbers-

    Q1.In a code Language the following alphabets are coded in a particular way.(SSC Combined Matric Level(Pre) 2002)

    V U N L J E A T K P
    1 5 8 6 3 4 7 2 9 0

    Which group of alphabets can be decoded from the following?
    762539

    1. ALTJUK    2) ALTUKJ    3) ALTVJK    4) ALTUJK
      Answer– (4)

    Q2. In a certain code PEN is Coded as 123,PENCIL as 123456,CABLE as 48962, then 6283123456 means what?(SSC CHSL 2015)

    1. LAENPENCIL        2) LEANPNCLI    3) LANPENCIL    4) LEANPENCIL
      Answer-(1)

    Q3.In a certain code 253 means ‘books are old’;’546’ means ‘man is old’ and ‘378’ means ‘buy good books.’what stands for “are” in that code?         (SSC CGL )

    1. 6        2) 2        3) 4        4) 5
      Answer– (2)

    ii)Numerical code values are assigned to a word-

    Q1.If BROAD means 19812.Then, CLOCK means-        (SSC CGL 2015)

    1. 68262        2) 68622        3) 26826        4) 37836
      Answer– (3)

    Q2.If C=3, and CAT=24, what is FAULT?                         (SSC Steno 2011)

    1. 60        2) 57        3) 64        4) 72
      Answer– (1)60

    Q3.In a certain code,LONDON is coded as 24-30-28-8-30-28.How will FRANCE be coded?
    1)
    10-24-6-28-6-12
    2) 12-26-6-28-8-10
    3) 12-36-2-28-6-10
    4) 12-36-2-28-8-10    (SSC CGL Tier-2013)
    Answer
    – (3)

    Q4.If REASON is coded as 5 and BELIEVED as 7,what is the code number for GOVERNMENT?

    1. 6        2) 8        3) 9        4) 10
      Answer– (3)

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    TYPE 3 -(SUBSTITUTION)

    • If air is called ‘green’,’green’ is called ‘blue’,’blue is called ‘sky’,’sky’ is called ‘yellow’,’yellow’ is called ‘water’ and ‘water’ is called ‘pink’ then what is the colour of clear ‘sky’?            (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam 2015)
    1. Sky        2) Water    3) Blue        4) Yellow
      Answer– (1) sky

    TYPE-4(SYMBOL CODING)

    Q1.In a certain code language FIRE is written as #%@$  and DEAL is written as !$*^.How is FAIL Written in that code Language?

    1. #*%^        2) #$%^    3) #*!$        4) #*!^        5)None of these   (Bank of Maharashtra PO Exam 2008)
      Answer
      – (1)
    • Following words are written in a code language. Study them carefully and find out the word in the given code.

    CAR-            $    *    ^
    SIT-            #    !    @
    WELL-            %    &    (    (
    MAP-            ~    *    )
    Given Code-        (    *    ~    *

    1)LAMP    2)LAMA    3)LAME    4)LAMB    (SSC CGL Tier I-2014)
    Answer
    – LAMA

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    TYPE-5(Capital Letter to Small Letter)

    Using the following code and Key, Decode the given coded word:

    Code         L X P Z J Y Q M N B
    Key        b  a  e  s p r  h i  g  t

    • What is the Code for the Word- ZBYXMNQB
    1. strength        2) height        3) struggle        4) straight (SSC  CGL Tier-I Exam-2015)
      Answer– Straight

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    Extra-

    • Which letter in the word “Vertex” should be changed to mean spiral movement?
    1. Ist        2) 2nd        3) 4th        4) Last        (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam 2014)
      Answer– (2)
    This information has been provided by Plutus Academy, one of the top coaching institute for Bank, SSC and IBPS coachings.

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  • Simple Interest and Compound Interest

    Jul 30 • Bank, Maths Notes • 4685 Views

    Simple Interest and Compound Interest 

    Interest (I): The additional amount paid by the borrower to the lender for the use of a sum of money.
    Principal (P): The sum of money lent, borrowed or invested.
    Time (T): The duration for which the sum of money is lent or invested, usually in years.
    Rate (R): The interest paid on Rs. 100 per unit of time, usually per annum (p.a.).
    Amount (A): The sum of principal and the interest.
    Simple Interest: The interest paid on the original sum of money borrowed or invested.
    1
    When we say, interest, it always means simple interest.

    Compound Interest: Money is said to be lent at compound interest, when the interest, which has become due at the end of a certain fixed period (one year, half year, etc., as given), is not paid to the money lender , but is added to the sum lent. The amount thus obtained becomes the principal for the next period. This process is repeated until the amount for the last period is found.
    The difference between the final amount and the original principal is the required compound interest i.e.
    Compound Interest = Final Amount – Original Principal
    The formula for finding the amount is
    si1
    Where A = amount
    P = principal
    r = rate of interest compounded yearly
    t = numbers of years
    When the rate for successive years are different, then
    si2
    Where r1 %, r2%, r3% …………………. are the rates for successive years.

    Some Important Formulas

    • The difference between compound interest and simple interest for some amount of money in 2 years  is  =si3
    • When the interest is compounded half yearly and rate of interest annually, then the amount will be after  t years,
      si4
    • When the interest is compounded yearly and time is 11 2 years, then amount will
      si5
    • The compound interest for 2 years  in terms of interest is,
      si6
    • The compound interest for 3 years in terms of simple interest is,
      si7

     

    WORKED OUT Questions

    1. A sum of Rs. 1600 gives a simple interest of Rs. 252 in 2 years and 3 months . The rate of interest per annum is
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    2. What sum of money will amount to Rs. 520 in 5 years and to Rs. 568 in 7 years at simple interest?
      si2
      Subtracting (1) from (2)
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    3. What should be the least number of years in which the simple interest on Rs. 2600 at 2twobythree% will be an exact number of rupees?
      sici
      If we multiply by 3 in interest for 1 year, we get the exact number of rupees
      Minimum time = 3 years.
    4. Ratio of the principal and the amount after 1 year is 10 :12 . Then the rate of interest  per annum is
      Solution : P : A = 10 : 12
      P : I = 10 : 2
      P / I = 10 / 2
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest

      R = 20 %.
    5. A person invests money in three different schemes for 6 years, 10 years and 12 years at 10 percent,12 percent and 15 percent respectively. At the completion of each scheme, he gets the same interest. The ratio of his investment is
      Solution : Let the principal be P1,P2 and P3 for 6 , 10 and 12 years respectively,
      P1 = 100 * (I/6) * 10
      P2 = 100 * (I/10) * 12
      P3 = 100 * (I/12) * 15
      P1 : P2 : P3 = (1/60) * (1/120) * (1/180)
      = 6 : 3 : 2.
    6. The sum of money that yields a compound interest of Rs. 420 during the second year at 5 % per annum is,
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    7. A man saves Rs. 2000 at the end of each year and invests the money at 5%  compound interest. At the end of 3 years he will have,
       Solution: He saves 2000 at the end of 1st year
      Interest in the  second year = (200 * 5 * 1) / 100 = 100
      Amount = 2000 + 100 = 2100
      He saves another 2000 at the end of 2nd year
      Principal for the 3rd year = 2100 + 2000 = 4100
      Interest in the 3rd year = (4100 * 5 *1)/100 = 205
      Amount = 4100 + 205 = 4305
      But he saves 2000 at the end of 3rd year
      So total amount = 4305 + 2000 = 6305.
    8.  The difference between the compound interest and simple interest for the amount Rs. 5000 in 2 years is Rs. 32. The rate of interest is,
      Solution: Simple interest for 1st year = (5000 * R * 1)/100 = 50R
      Simple interest for 2nd year = 50 * R
      Compound interest for 2nd year = 50 * R + (50 * R * R)/100
      Difference between C.I. and S.I. = 32
      sici
      Alternative
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    9. A sum of money doubles itself in 4 years at compound interest. It will amount to 8 times itself at the same rate of interest in
      Solution: Let the principal be x
      Amount = 2x in 4 years

      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    10. If the compound interest on a certain sum for 2 years at 3% per annum is Rs.101.50 , then the simple interest on the same sum at the same rate and for the Same time will be
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest
    11. An amount of money appreciates to Rs. 7000 after 4 years and to Rs. 10000. After 8 years at a certain compound interest compounded annually. The Initial amount of money was
      quantitative aptitude notes on simple and compound interest

      These notes have been prepared by Plutus Academy.

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  • English Comprehension: Pronoun Practice Questions

    Jul 28 • Bank, English Notes • 2263 Views

    Pronoun Practice Questions for SSC, IBPS, SBI PO and Other Competitive Examinations

    Error Detection:-

    1. This is(a)/ a new car but(b)/ that is old ones(c)/No error(d)
    2. These are(a)/ a new phones but(b)/ those are old one(c)/No error(d)
    3. Your scarf is red(a)/ but(b)/ my one is green(c)/No error(d)
    4. Rekha has(a)/ seen any(b)/ of you there.(c)/ No error(d)
    5. Mrs. Harper(a)/ did not see(b)/ any of you there.(c)/ No error(d)
    6. Ram(a)/ must do not(b)/something for us.(c)/No error(d)
    7. Shambhavi forgot(a)/ the year in whose(b)/ she was born.(c)/ No error(d)
    8. Who of the(a)/ following questions(b)/ are true.(c)/ No error(d)
    9. Who(a)/ was that(b)/ purse?(c)/ No error(d)
    10. Radhika asked(a)/ as many issues(b)/ she could.(c)/ No error(d)
    11. Mrs.Sachi Aryan is(a)/ the most intelligent teacher(b)/ whom I know.(c)/No error(d)
    12. Raman is(a)/ an athletic(b)/ who we admire.(c)/ No error(d)
    13. This is(a)/ the same school(b)/ in that they study.(c)/ No error(d)
    14. Sita as well as(a)/ other girls absented(b)/ themselves from the school.(c)/ No error(d)
    15. The English defeated(a)/ French in the(b)/ battle of Wandiwash.(c)/ No error(d)
    16. As a councilor(a)/ she is far better(b)/ than her.(c)/ No error(d)
    17. Mine is(a)/ the same problem(b)/ that yours.(c)/ No error(d)
    18. The hospitals of Delhi(a)/ are more expensive(b)/ than that of Orissa.(c)/ No error(d)
    19. The five brothers(a)/ live in Gujarat and(b)/ they loved each other.(c)/ NO error(d)
    20. I,You and he(a)/ shall do(b)/ their homework. (c)/No error(d)
    21. You, he and I(a)/ commit a crime(b)/ and caught by Police.(c)/ No error(d)
    22. We, they and you(a)/ should be concerned(b)/ for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.(c)/No error(d)
    23. Everybody but she(a)/ was not available(b)/ for a yesterday’s conference.(c)/ No error(d)
    24. Ambica(a)/ laughed(b) at I.(c)/ No error(d)
    25. Everybody attended(a)/ the baby shower(b)/ except her.(c)/ No error(d)
    26. I run(a)/ faster(b)/ than her.(c)/ No error(d)
    27. I know(a)/ her(b)/ as much as him.(c)/No error(d)
    28. It is her(a)/ who is responsible(b)/ for her failure.(c)/ No error(d)
    29. India and Pakistan(a)/ are developing country.(b)/ Its are facing poverty issues.(c)/ No error(d)
    30. It was Ram(a)/ who has gone through(b)/ a big mental trauma.(c)/ No error(d)
    31. Ours laboratory(a)/ was closed(b)/ for three days(c)/. No error(d)
    32. Yours is(a)/ a(b)/ beautiful house.(c)/ No error(d)
    33. She has(a)/ lost my bag(b)/ as well as your(c)/ . No error(d)
    34. Save your(a)/ project(b)/ as well as me.(c)/ No error(d)
    35. She himself(a)/ is the(b)/ cause of her death.(c)/ No error(d)
    36. She(a)/ enjoyed(b)/ during vacation.(c)/ No error(d)
    37. He should(a)/ keep himself(b)/ away from bad boys.(c)/ No error(d)
    38. She(a)/ hid herself(b)/ in the classroom.(c)/ No error(d)
    39. Either of these(a)/ four sisters(b)/ is naughty.(c)/ No error(d)
    40. Shamita will(a)/ do the work(b)/ for myself.(c)/ No error(d)
    41. Every of the(a)/ five-countries are(b)/ taking part in NSG summit.(c)/ No error(d)
    42. These are(a)/ new projects(b)/ but that are old ones.(c)/ No error(d)
    43. Yesterday, eleventh(a)/class have(b)/bunked the lecture.(c)/No error.(d)
    44. Have you(a)/ seen a building(b)/ who includes ten floors?(c)/ No error(d)
    45. I have concluded(a)/ some ways whose(b)/ derive my previous problem.(c)/ No error(d)
    46. Everybody greets(a)/ Raman who(b)/ she treats a terrorist.(c)/ No error(d)
    47. She can defeat(a)/ Shreya whom(b)/ has defeated everyone.(c)/ No error(d)
    48. Shipra hate(a)/ everyone and everybody who(b)/ reminds them of their past.(c)/ No error.(d)
    49. She is the(a)/ girl who(b)/ helped him yesterday.(c)/No error(d)
    50. I(a)/don’t know(b)/ who is she.(c)/ No error(d)

    Previous Year Questions:-

    1. You must either(1)/ be regular with your studies(2)/ and study for long hours period before   the examination.(3)/ No error(4)  {SSC Section officer(Audit) Exam. 1997}
    2. Tea(1)/ which I am drinking(2)/ is hot.(3).No error(4)    {SSC Section officer(Audit) Exam.14.12.2003}
    3. I know(1)/ a doctor(2)/ you are referring to.(3)/No error(4) {SSC Section officer(Audit) Exam.14.12.2003}
    4. He is one of those writers(1)/ who has won acclaim(2)/ the world over(3)/ No error(4){SSC Statistical Investigator Grade-IV Exam.31.07.2005}
    5. The fact of me(1)/ being a stranger(2)/ does not excuse his conduct.(3)/ No error(4) {SSC Section officer(Audit) Exam.10.12.2006}
    6. The doctor advised Mr. Murugan that,(1)/ because of his sever cramps,(2)/ he should lay in the bed for a few days(3)/ No error(4){SSC Tax Assistant – Income Tax & central Exercise Exam.29.03.2009}
    7. Kambli is one of the players(1)/ who has been selected(2)/ for the test match no Kamli is one of the players who has been selected for the test match.(3)/ No error(4){SSC Tax Assistant – Income Tax & central Exercise Exam.14.12.2008}

    Answers-

    Error Detection

      1. that is old ones(c)  – wrong
        that is old one        – correct, because that singular form and one is used in place of ones for that.
      2. those are old one(c)- wrong
        those are old ones   – correct, because those- plural form and ones is used in place of one for those
      3. my one is green(c) – wrong
        mine is green         – correct
      4. seen any(b) – wrong
        seen some   – correct
      5.  No error(d)
      6. must do not(b) – wrong
        must not do      – correct
      7.  the year in whose(b) – wrong
        the year in which       – correct
      8. Who of the – wrong
        Which of the  – correct, because in case of selection use which.
      9. Who(a) – wrong
        Whose  – correct
      10. as many issues(b) – wrong
        as many issues as – correct
      11. whom I know.(c) – wrong
        That I know – correct
      12. who we admire.(c) – wrong
        whom we admire.(c)   – correct
      13. in that they study.(c) – wrong
        in which they study.   – correct
      14. themselves from the school.(c) – wrong
        Herself from the school.    – correct, herself is used in place of themselves because in case of as well as first subject is considered and here in this case first subject is singular.
      15. French in the(b) – wrong
        The french in the  – correct
      16. than her.(c) – wrong
        Than she  – correct, because in case of comparison both the subjects should be in nominative case.
      17. that yours.(c) – wrong
        As yours.       – correct, use as in place of that because after using ‘the same’ verb is not specified and in that case as  is used.
      18. than that of Orissa.(c) – wrong
        than those of Orissa.   – correct, use those in place of that because of plural subject.
      19. they loved each other.(c) – wrong
        they loved one another   – correct
      20. I,You and he(a) – wrong
        You, he and I      – correct, in case of a sentence when all the three persons come together then apply rule 231.i.e. second person, third person then first person respectively.
      21. You, he and I(a) – wrong
        I, you and he    – Correct, in Case when all the three persons come together and something wrong done by all then order is 123.
      22. We, they and you(a) – wrong
        We, you and they     – correct, in case of plural forms of all the three persons come together in a same sentence, the order is 123.
      23. Everybody but she(a) – wrong
        Everybody but her      – correct, ‘Her’ is used in place of ‘she’ because objective case comes after but.
      24. at I.(c) – wrong
        at me  – correct
        Me is used in place of I  because objective case comes after preposition.
      25. No error(d)
      26. than her.(c) – wrong
        than she      – correct, Use she in place her because in case of comparison both the subjects should be in nominative Case.
      27. No error(d), because it means I know you as much as I know him.
      28. It is her(a) – wrong
        It is she     – correct, Her is replaced by she because as per rule when sentence starts with ‘It’ and followed by any    Form of ‘be’ then the pronoun that follows ‘be’
      29. Its are facing poverty issues.(c) – wrong
        They are facing poverty issues. – correct
        Use they in place of its.
      30. No error(d)
        It is used in a sentence as subject to emphasize on noun or pronoun.
      31. Ours laboratory(a) – wrong
        Our laboratory(a) – correct
        Ours is replaced by Our because ours is possessive pronoun and it cannot be placed near noun.
      32. No error(d)
      33. as well as your(c) – wrong
        as well as yours   – correct
        Your is replaced by yours.
      34. as well as me.(c) – wrong
        as well as mine    – correct
      35. She himself(a) – wrong
        She herself      – correct, Use herself in place of himself And reflexive pronoun i.e. herself is used to emphasize personal pronoun.
      36. enjoyed(b) – wrong
        Enjoyed herself – correct
        According to rule, use reflexive pronoun with words like enjoy.
      37. keep himself(b) – wrong
        keep                – correct, remove himself as we do not use reflexive pronoun with words like ‘keep’.
      38. hid herself(b) – wrong
        Hid                 – correct, remove herself as we do not use reflexive pronoun with words like hid’.
      39. four sisters(b) – wrong
        Two sisters(b) – correct, Either and neither are always used for two.
      40. for myself.(c) – wrong
        for me           – correct, ,me is used in place of myself. Because reflexive pronoun cannot be used as a subject/object of a sentence unless noun/pronoun comes before it.
      41. Every of the(a) – wrong
        Each of the       – correct
      42. but that are old ones.(c) – wrong
        but those are old ones.(c) – correct, That should be replaced by those.
      43. class have(b) – wrong
        class has       – correct, Have should be replaced by has, class is a collective noun and treats as singular subject.
      44. who includes ten floors?(c) – wrong
        which includes ten floors?(c) – correct, Who is replaced by which because which is used for non living things.
      45. some ways whose(b) – wrong
        some ways which      – correct, Whose is replaced by which as which is used for non living things i.e. ways.
      46. Raman who(b) – wrong
        Raman whom   – correct
      47. Shreya whom(b) – wrong
        Shreya who        – correct, Whom is replaced by who.
      48. everyone and everybody who(b) – wrong
        everyone and everybody that  –     correct, Use that when which and who is equally needed in a same sentence.
      49. girl who(b) – wrong
        girl that      – correct
      50. who is she.(c) – wrong
        who she is –  correct

    Previous Year Questions

    1. and study for long hours period before the examination.(c) – wrong
      Or study for long hours period before the examination.       – correct
    2. Tea(a)    – wrong
      The Tea – correct
    3. a doctor(b) – wrong
      The doctor who – correct
    4. who has won acclaim(b) – wrong
      who have won acclaim(b)  – correct
    5. The fact of me(a)  -wrong
      The fact of my       – correct
    6. he should lay in the bed for a few days(c) – wrong
      he should lie in the bed for a few days      – correct
    7. who has been selected(b)  – wrong
      who have been selected(b) – correct
    This practice set has been provided by Plutus Academy.

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  • Math Test paper 6 for Bank Po Exam

    Average Problems for BANK Exams

    Jul 28 • Bank, Maths Notes • 2054 Views

    Practice Questions ibps
    Average: Practice Questions for SSC, IBPS and SBI PO

    Q1. The average of 11 numbers is 36, and average of first 9 numbers is 34. If last  two numbers are in the ratio 2 : 3 then find the smallest number in the last two.
    (A)
    18                (B) 36                 (C) 54                 (D) 60

    Q2. Find the average of all the numbers between 23 and 177 which are divisible by 5.
    (A)
    90                (B) 100              (C) 95                   (D) 105

    Q3. The average age of A,B and C is 23. Four years after the average age of A and B will be 29. What was  the age of C, 3 years before the present age ?
    (A)
    16                 (B) 17                 (C) 18                   (D) 19

    Q4. Find the average of 100,121,144,169,196,……………………………….,400.
    (A)
    225              (B) 235               (C) 230                 (D) 240

    Q5. What is the average of first 16 multiples of 14 ?
    (A)
    115               (B) 120                (C) 116                  (D) 119

    Q6. The average marks of 120 students is 50. If the average marks of passing students is 70 and the average marks of failure students is 22. What is the number of failure students ?
    (A)
    50                  (B) 45               (C) 60                   (D) 55

    Q7. A man walks ⅝ part of his journey at a speed of 5 kmph and remaining at a speed of 3 kmph. What is the average speed during his whole journey ?
    (A)
    3.5                 (B) 4.2                (C) 4.5                   (D) 4

    Q8. What is the average of 1, 23, 33,……………………………………….,403 ? 
    (A)
    16000            (B) 15810          (C) 16781             (D) 16810      

    Q9.The average age of 18 men decreases by 1 when two men of age 38 and 44 are replaced by two women. Find the average age of two women.
    (A)
    32                    (B) 34                   (C) 35                        (D) 30

    Q10. The average of 13 consecutive odd numbers is 25. What is the smallest odd number?
                 (A) 10                   (B) 12                    (C) 13                         (D) 11

    Q11. The average age of a school of 35 teachers is 32. If the age of the principal be included then the average increases by 4 months. Find the age of principal. 
                  (A) 44                 (B) 47                  (C) 45                        (D) 42

    Q12. What fraction should be added to these three fractions 1/7, 4/15 and 2/5 such that the average of four fractions is ¼ ?
                   (A) 2/21             (B) 1/5                  (C) 4/21                  (D) 2/5

    Q13. What is the average of all even numbers between 100 and 1000 ?
                    (A) 500              (B) 550                 (C) 600              (D) 650

    Q14. The total age of A,B and C is 70 more than the age of C. what is the average age of A and B ?
                   (A) 30                       (B) 33                    (C) 36                       (D) 35

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    Q15. The average of 40 numbers is 12. If the average of first 13 number is 9, average of second 13 numbers is 13 and average of third 13 numbers is 12. What is the 40th number ?
                    (A) 25                      (B) 13                    (C) 38                     (D) 24

    Q16. If the average of A,B and C is 50, average of B and C is 70, average of  A and C is 65. What is the average of A and B ?
                    (A) 10                     (B) 60                    (C) 55                      (D) 15

    Q17. The average score of a school in an examination is 75. If the average score of boys is 69, and the ratio of the numbers of boys to the girls is 5 : 3 . What is the average score of girls ?
                   (A) 85                     (B) 80                   (C) 81                       (D) 78

    Q18. The average age of some students in a class is 8. If their class teacher is included whose age is 40, the average age of whole class increases by 2. What are the number of students in a class ?
                    (A) 20                    (B) 10                   (C) 12                   (D) 15

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    Q19. A man travels from point A to B in such a way that, he travels half distance at a speed of 80 kmph and half distance at a speed of 20 kmph. And then returns from B to A in the same manner i.e. half at a speed of 60 kmph and half at a speed of 40 kmph. Find his average speed during the whole journey.
                    (A) 37.5                      (B) 36.4                (C) 38.4                (D) 39.4

    Q20. The average of 31 numbers is 27. If three numbers 31,25 and 46 are discarded, the average of the remaining numbers is
                       (A) 25.5                   (B) 24.5                 (C) 26.25                 (D) 26

    Q21. The average marks obtained by a student in 7 papers is 35 and in the 8th paper he obtains  75 marks. Find his new average.
                         (A) 37                     (B) 40                     (C) 39                   (D) 42

    Tricks for Quantitative Aptitude

    Q22.  The average age of a family of 7 members is 25. The age of  two youngest members, namely Rahul and Tarun are 4 and 7 respectively. Find the average age of family at the birth of Tarun .
                         (A) 20                   (B) 20.5                  (C) 21                     (D) 21.5

    Q23. A man travels one-fourth part of a journey at a speed of 8 kmph, next three – fifth part at a speed of 6 kmph and remaining part at a  speed of 10 kmph. What  is the average speed of a man during his whole journey ?
                           (A) 7.8                (B) 6.23                (C) 6.83                  (D) 7.2

    Q24.  In a 50 over match, the required run rate to win is 6.6. If the run rate is 6.5 at the End of 46th over, the required run rate to win the match is.
                             (A) 6.75                         (B) 6.55              (C) 7.75               (D) 7.25

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    Q25. There are in all 15 pen, some of them are red and the others are green. The average cost of all pens is 23. If the average cost of red pen is Rs. 27 and that of green pen is Rs. 21, the number of green pen is.
                              (A) 10                        (B) 12                (C) 15                    (D) 13

    Q26. The average of the 30 numbers is 22. The average of the first 14 number is 30. The average of the rest is.
                           (A) 12                     (B) 15                    (C) 11                        (D) 13

    Q27. The average marks of 150 students in a school is 43. The average marks of boys and girls are 41 and 46 respectively. The number of boys in a  school is .
                       (A) 90                    (B) 60                     (C) 30                      (D) 120

    Q28. The average of the first 102 multiples of 2 is
                       (A) 100                   (B) 101                    (C) 102                  (D) 103

    Q29. The average of 12 numbers is 17. But a number 18 is misread as 12. Find the correct average
                         (A) 16.5                   (B) 17                   (C) 17.5                (D) 16

    Q30. The average of 13 numbers is 23. If two numbers are excluded, the average becomes 22. The average of the excluded numbers is
                          (A) 28                  (B) 28.5                 (C) 29                 (D) 30                                                           Best Books for Competitive Exam

    Q31. In a class the average score of all students is 32. If the average score of boys and girls are 31 and 35. Find the percentage of girls. 
                       (A) 25%                     (B) 20%                  (C) 30%               33.33%

    Q32.The average age of 10 players of a team is 24. If the captain’s age is included, the average age increases by 1. The age of the captain is
                            (A) 30                         (B) 32                     (C) 35               (D) 36

    Q33. There are 24 balls, some are red and and the others are white. The average cost of all the balls is 40. If the average cost of red balls 35 and average cost of white balls is 43. Find the number of red balls.
                            (A) 9                       (B) 15                      (C) 12                  (D) 10

    Q34. The average of the numbers 4, 424and 44 is
                           (A) 43                     (B) 85                   (C) 51                 (D) 26

    Q35. The average of 37 numbers is 56. The average of first 18 numbers is 53 and the average of last 18 numbers is 58. Find the 19th number.
                           (A) 44                     (B) 54                   (C) 64                (D) 74

    Q36. Find the average of the numbers 11,22,33,44,……………..1111.
                          (A) 500                       (B) 561                 (C) 582                     (D) 523

    Q37. The average age of a family of 9 members is 20 years. The age of three youngest members Tushar, Prateek and Sachin are 3,4 and 5 years respectively. Find the average age of family at the birth of Sachin.
                                 (A) 17                  (B) 20                  (C) 23                     (D) 26

    Q38. The average of 11 numbers is 11. The average of first six numbers is 10 and the average of last 6 numbers is 14. Find the 6th number.
                             (A) 23                (B) 20             (C) 25                       (D) 26

    Q39. The average age of four boys is 12. If their ages are in the ratio 2:3:4:7. What is the age of the youngest boy?
                         (A) 5                      (B) 8                 (C) 6                       (D) 4

    Q40. The average weight of a class of 14 students is 33 kg . If their class teacher be included whose weight is 78 kg, then find the new average weight of class.
                         (A) 34                   (B) 35                     (C) 32                   (D) 36

    Q41. The average of A and B is 36,average of  B and C is 24 and average of C and A is 54. Find the average of A,B and C.
                          (A) 30                  (B) 35                   (C) 36                (D) 38

    Q42. Find the average of first 50 multiples of 32.
                        (A) 820               (B) 956                (C) 326                    (D) 816

    Q43. The average of 13 numbers is 15. If every number is multiplied by 9, then the average of new numbers is
                      (A) 15                 (B) 24                (C) 135                         (D) 120

    Q44. In a class there are 40 boys and their average age is 16 years. One boy aged 17 years leaves the school and another joins, and their average age becomes 15.95 years. What is the age of the new boy ?
                       (A) 14                       (B) 15                      (C) 16                     (D) 17

    Q45. Find the average of all the numbers between 65 and 359, which are divisible by 33
                      (A) 180                  (B) 165.5                 (C) 129                     (D) 181.5

    Q46. One student read 200 pages at the rate of 80 pages per hour. Another student read 150 pages at the rate of 60 pages per hour. What is the average rate of reading of both students together ?
                    (A) 96                  (B) 75                  (C) 70                 (D) 85

    Q47. The average expenditure of a man for the first 8 months of a year is Rs. 6000 and for the next 4 months it is Rs. 5000. He saves Rs. 7300 during the year. Find his average monthly income
                    (A) 6000                   (B) 6275                 (C) 6500                 (D) 6775

    Q48. The average of the numbers 18,20,22,24,……………………………256.
                  (A) 156               (B) 137                     (C) 154                    (D) 126

    Q49. Find the average of odd numbers up to 999.
                  (A) 400                   (B) 600                     (C) 500                     (D) 700

    Q50. The average of the following numbers 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 22, 22, 22, 22, 22, 22, 22, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30. 
                  (A) 120                       (B) 122                      (C) 126                    (D) 128

    Answer Key:-
    1. B            2. B            3. A           4. B          5. D       6. A        7. D        8. D        9. A   10. C        11. A            12. C        13. B         14. D     15. C       16. D       17. A       18.D 19. C         20. C         21. B         22. D         23. C      24. C          25. A            26. B       27. A          28. D         29. C       30. B          31. A        32. C       33. A        34. B     35. D         36. B          37. C        38. A          39. D         40. D         41. D        42. D   43. C          44. B          45. D       46. C         47. B         48. B          49. C        50. D

    These Notes have been provided by Plutus Academy, one of the best coaching institutes of SSC exam.

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  • Quantitative Aptitude Notes for SSC and IBPS: Average

    Jul 26 • Bank, Maths Notes • 1633 Views

    For the past few years, abrupt growth has been observed in number of applicants applying for government jobs. Staff Selection Commission(SSC) and Institute of Banking Personnel Selection(IBPS) are two major job providers for such candidates but the selection process is not a straight one. These recruitments are carried out via a series of rounds including on-line/written test, group discussion and interview. Thus for the purpose of helping the candidates in achieving a good score in on-line/written examination, we have tried here to give a brief yet very effective notes on quantitative aptitude notes for SSC & IBPS.
    Average is an important topic for quantitative aptitude section any government examination. Lets understand the basics of ‘Average’ before learning some more concepts mathematics required to crack government competitive examinations.

    quantitative aptitude notes for ssc and Ibps

    AVERAGE

    Average of some numbers or some quantities is the sum of quantities divided by the number of quantity. The formula for the average of n numbers x1, x2, x3,……..,xn is,
     (x1+x2+x3+…….xn) / n
    Sum of Total Quantities = Average * Number of Quantities
    Example: Find the average of five numbers 10,12,14,16,18 .
    Solution: Average =10+12+14+16+18/5
    =70/5
    =14

    WEIGHTED AVERAGE

    Suppose you have two or more groups whose individual averages are known. Then to find the combined average of all the elements of all the groups, we use weighted average. Thus if we have m groups with averages A1,A2,…..,AM and having n1,n2,…..,nM elements respectively, then the average of all the elements of all the groups is given by weighted average i.e.
    Weighted average = (n1A1+n2A2+……………+nMAM)/(n1+n2+……………+nM)
    Example: The average price of 15 books from one shop is 10 and average price of 10 books from another shop is 30. Find the average price of all the books.
    Solution: Average = 15*10 + 10*30/15+20
    =150+300/25
    =450/25
    =18

    PROPERTIES

    If the average age of a group of persons is x years today then after n years their average age will be x+n and also n years ago their average would have been x-n.
    Example: The average age of a family of 6 members is 21 . find the average age of this family after 7 years if no member is exclude or include
    Solution: Average = 21+7 =28
    Average speed = Total Distance/Total Time
    If a man travels at ‘x’ kmph. From point A to B and returns at ‘y’ kmph then average speed for the whole journey will be,
    (2x*y)/(x+y)
    Example: a man travels at 60 kmph on the journey from A to B and returns at 100 kmph. Find his average speed for the journey.
    Solution: Average  =  (2*60*100)/(60+100)
    = 12000/160
    = 75

    SOME IMPORTANT FORMULAS RELATED TO AVERAGE

    1. Average of First ‘n’ Natural Numbers = (n+1)/2
    2. Average of Squares of First ‘n’ Natural Numbers = (n+1)(2n+1)/6
    3. Average of Cubes of First n Natural Numbers = n(n+1)2/4
    4. Average of Even Natural Numbers up to ‘n’ = (n/2)+1
    5. Average of First ‘n’ Even Natural Numbers = n+1
    6. Average of Odd Numbers up to ‘n’ = (n+1)/2
    7. Average of First ‘n’ Natural Odd Numbers = n
    8. Average of  Any a, b, c,….., n consecutive numbers = (a+n)/2
    9. Average of An Arithmetic Sequence with First Number ‘a’  and last number ‘l’ = (a+l)/2

    Worked Out Questions on Average

    1.  The average of  6 numbers is 15. The average of the first two numbers is 16 and the average of the last three numbers is 13. What is the third number.

    Solution: Sum of 6 numbers = 15 * 6 = 90
    Sum of first two numbers = 16 * 2 = 32
    Sum of last three numbers = 13 * 3 = 39
    Third number = 90 – (32 + 39)
    = 90 – 71
    = 19.

    1. The average age of  the family of five members is 24. If the present age of youngest members is 8 years, then what was the average age of the family at the birth of the youngest member?

    Solution: Sum of the age of five members = 24 * 5 = 120
    At the birth of youngest member the age of each member was 8 less than present age.
    Sum of age of five members at the birth of youngest member = 120 – (8 * 5)
    = 120 – 40
    = 80
    Average age at the birth of youngest member = 80 / 5
    = 16.
    Alternatively
    Average age of the family at the birth of youngest member means the average age of the family before 8 years.
    Average age of family is 24 years today, so 8 years ago average age of family would have been
    24 – 8 =16.

    1. The average of two numbers A and B is 20, B and C is 35 and C and A is 30. What is the value of A.

    Solution: A + B = 40
    B + C = 70               …..(1)
    C + A = 60
    2(A + B + C) = 170
    A+B+C = 85           …..(2)
    Subtract equation (1)  from (2),we get
    A= 85-70=15.

    1. The average score of boys in an examination in a school is 71 and that of girls is 73. The average score of the school is 71.8 . find  the ratio of the number of boys to that of the girls that appeared in the examination .

    Solution: Let the number of boys be ‘x’ and the number of girls be ‘y’.
    Sum of marks of all boys = 71x
    Sum of marks of all girls = 73y
    Sum of marks of all students in an examination = 71.8(x + y)
    71.8(x + y)=71x + 73y
    71.8x + 71.8y = 71x + 71y
    .8x = 1.2y
    x/y =1.2/.8
    =12:8
    =3:2.

    1. The average weight of  40 students in a class is 30 kg. If, however the weight of teacher be included, the average increases by 1 kg. What is the weight of teacher?

    Solution: Let the weight of teacher be ‘x’.
    Sum of weight of 40 students = 40 * 30 = 1200
    After included the weight of teacher, the weight of whole class = 1200 + x
    41 * 31 = 200+x
    1271 = 1200+x
    x = 71.
    Alternatively
    Since initially the average weight is 30 kg, but after including teacher the average weight increases by 1kg meaning 41kg weight is increasing of the whole class. So the weight of teacher is 41 + 30 = 7.1.

    1. 35 oranges and 75 apples were purchased for Rs 480. If the price per orange was Rs 3, then the average price of apples were?

    Solution: Total price of oranges = 35 * 3 = 105
    Total price of apples =480 – 105 = 375
    Average price of apples = 375 / 75
    = 5.

    1. The average of 7 numbers is 26. If the average of first four numbers is 27 and the average of last four numbers is 25. What is the fourth number?

    Solution: Suppose the seven numbers are x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 and x7.
    Sum of seven numbers = 26 * 7 = 182
    Sum of first 4 numbers i.e. x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 27 * 4 = 108
    Sum of last 4 numbers i.e. x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 = 25 * 4 = 100
    x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 = 108 + 100 = 208
    Fourth number i.e. x4 = 208-182 =26.

    1. Five years ago, the average age of A and B is 13. Now the average age of  A,B and C is 17. Find the age of C after 10 years from now.

    Solution: Five years ago, sum of the age of A and B is 13 * 2 = 26
    Now, sum of the age of  A and B is 26 + 10 = 36
    Now, sum of the age of  A, B and C is 17 * 3 = 51
    Now, the age of C is 51 – 36 = 15
    After 10 years, the age of C will be 15 + 10 = 25.

    1. The average age of some students of a school is 11, and average age of 20 teachers is 33. If average age of both the groups of students and teacher is 13. Find the number of students.

    Solution Let the number of boys be ‘x’.
    Average age of teachers is 20 more than the average of whole groups. It means that the age of whole group increases by  20 * 20 = 400
    Average age of students is 2 less than that of whole group. It means that the age of whole group decrease 20 * x = 20x.
    So, 400 = 2x
    x = 400/2
    = 200.

    1. Find the average of 5,12,19,26,………………..,,705.

    Solution: This is an arithmetic sequence with first term 5 and last term 705.
    Average = (5 + 705) / 2
    = 710/2
    = 355.

    Sample Exercise on Average

    Read more Notes on Quantitative Aptitude: Time and Work, Speed Time and Distance.

    These Notes have been provided by Plutus Academy.

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  • Practice Questions Profit & Loss

    Jul 26 • Bank, Maths Notes • 1113 Views

    Quantitative Aptitude: Practice Questions on Profit & Loss for Competitive Exams(SSC, IBPS, SBI PO)

    1. An article was sold at Rs. 6000 at a loss of 40%. What will be the selling price of the article for a profit of 32%.?
      (a) 12200
      (b) 11200
      (c) 13200
      (d) 10200
    2. By selling 18 identical articles, a shopkeeper gains equal to S.P. of 6 articles. What is %loss or %profit ?
      (a) 20
      (b) 25
      (c) 3313
      (d) 50
    3. Three brands of tea costing Rs. 350, Rs. 400 and Rs. 620 per kg are mixed in the ratio 2:3:5 by weight. If 2/5 of the mixture is sold at 500 per kg, 3/10 at 600 per kg and remaining at 800 per kg. Find the %profit on the whole.
      (a) 23
      (b) 22
      (c) 21
      (d) 24
    4. C.P. of 30 toffees is equal to the S.P. of 25 toffees. Find the %loss or %profit.
      (a) 25
      (b) 20
      (c) 50
      (d) 3313
    5. The cost price of two identical articles is Rs. 1500. One article is sold at a loss of 6%. At what %profit should the other articles be sold such that there is a profit of 4% on the whole ?
      (a) 14
      (b) 12
      (c) 10
      (d) 8
    6. A man sells an article at 7% above its cost. If he had bought it at 7%less than what he paid for it and sold it at Rs.69 more, he would have gained 20%. Find the cost price of the article.
      (a) 1500
      (b) 1400
      (c) 1600
      (d) 1450
    7. A single discount equivalent to three successive discounts of 10%,20% and 30%.
      (a) 50.4%
      (b) 49.6%
      (c) 60%
      (d) 50%
    8. A man sold his washing machine at a loss of 5%. If he had sold it at Rs.320 more ,he would have made a profit of 3%. Find the C.P. of washing machine.
      (a) 3200
      (b) 5000
      (c) 4000
      (d) 3000
    9. Ramesh buys some identical books for Rs.60000. He sold 2/3 of all books at a loss of 7%. At what %profit should he sold the remaining books so that he would make 9% on the whole transaction ?
      (a) 40
      (b) 43
      (c) 42
      (d) 41
    10. Three articles are sold for Rs.1500,Rs.2400 and Rs. 1200 respectively. The first article is sold at 20% profit and the second at 20% loss. If on the whole a loss of 2% is made. Find the cost price of the 3rd article.
      (a) 750
      (b) 850
      (c) 800
      (d) 700
    11. A man bought 50 pens for Rs.500. He wanted to sell them at a profit so that he got 5 pens free. At what profit percent should he sell them ?
      (a) 12
      (b) 11.1
      (c) 10
      (d) 10.5
    12. A shopkeeper sells a refrigerator on a discount of 12% of print price and gains 10%. If print price was Rs. 12000 then, what was the cost price ?
      (a) 11200
      (b) 10000
      (c) 8800
      (d) 9600
    13. A retailer buys a T.V. for Rs. 15000. His overhead charges are Rs. 1000. He sell the T.V. for 18400. The profit percent of the retailer is?
      (a) 12%
      (b) 15%
      (c) 10%
      20%
    14. The reduction of Rs. 210 in the selling price of an article will change 5% profit to 2% loss. The cost price of the article is
      (a) 3000
      (b) 2100
      (c) 2700
      (d) 2500
    15. A man buys 2 scooters of Rs. 20000 and 25000 respectively. He sell one scooter at a loss of 10%. At what %profit should he sell the other scooter such that there is neither profit nor loss on the whole transaction ?
      (a) 10%
      (b) 8%
      (c) 6%
      (d) 5%
    16. A shopkeeper offers a discount of 12% on marked price and sells the article of Rs. 4400. What is the marked price of the article ?
      (a) 4000
      (b) 4500
      (c) 5000
      (d) 4800
    17. Calculate the single discounts equivalent to two successive discounts of 40% and 20%.
      (a) 52
      (b) 48
      (c) 60
      (d) 50
    18. A man buys 100 pens for Rs. 5 each. But 5 pens are found to be damaged. At what price per pen should he sell the remaining pen so that he can make a profit of 6.4%?
      (a) 5.3
      (b) 6.1
      (c) 5.8
      (d) 5.6
    19. A man buys 15 toffees for Rs. 14 and sells 14 toffees for Rs.15. Find his %profit or %loss.
      (a) 14.8
      (b) 14
      (c) 15
      (d) 15.2
    20. A shopkeeper buys sugar for Rs.2400. He had to sell three-fourth at 10%profit. At what percent gain he should sell the remaining sugar so as to make an overall profit of 8% ?
      (a) 4%
      (b) 3%
      (c) 2%
      (d) 1%
    21. A man sells an article at a profit of 20%.if he had bought it at 5% more and sold it for Rs. 30 less, his profit would have been zero. Find the cost price of the article.
      (a) 100
      (b) 200
      (c) 300
      (d) 400
    22. A retailer marks his goods 20% more than the cost price . if he allows a discount of 10%, then his gain percent is .
      (a) 10%
      (b) 8%
      (c) 9%
      (d) 11%
    23. A trader fixed the marked price of an article 20% above its cost and allows a discount of 10% and makes a profit of Rs. 80. The cost of the article is
      (a) 1000
      (b) 600
      (c) 700
      (d) 800
    24. The marked price of an article is 20 more than the cost price. After a discount of 10% we got a profit of 12.5%. Find the cost price of the article.
      (a) 40
      (b) 60
      (c) 100
      (d) 80
    25. A man bought 85 kg mangoes for Rs. 30 per kg, but 8 kg mangoes are found to be rotten.at what price per kg should he sell the remaining mangoes to make a profit of 11%
      (a) 34/kg
      (b) 37/kg
      (c) 35/kg
      (d) 36/kg
    26. A man bought 24 eggs of Rs. 5 each. 8 eggs were broken and he sold the remaining eggs at 3313 % profit. Find the loss (in Rs.) due to the broken eggs if all the eggs were sold at the same rate
      (a) 80
      (b) 60
      (c) 40
      (d) 50
    27. A sells an article to B at a loss of 10%,B sells it to C at a profit of 10%, and C sells it to D at a loss of 20%. If D had to pay Rs. 316.8 for it, how much did A pay for it ?
      (a) 300
      (b) 350
      (c) 400
      (d) 450
    28. Mohan buys an article for Rs. 400 and sells it at 15% profit. Find the selling price of the article.
      (a) 450
      (b) 460
      (c) 430
      (d) 550
    29. A man buys 16 toffees for Rs. 15 and sells 4 toffees in Rs. 5. Find his percentage profit.
      (a) 3313%
      (b) 25%
      (c) 20%
      (d) 50%
    30. A retailer fixed the marked price of his good as Rs. 1000 and allowed two successive discounts 20% and 10%. After selling his good he made a profit of 20%. Find the cost price of his good.
      (a) 650
      (b) 700
      (c) 500
      (d) 600
    31. A shopkeeper increases the price of television sets by 20%. Due to this increase in price the number of television sets sold decreased by 10%. What was the effect on the sales of television sets ?
      (a) 6% increase in sales
      (b) 6% decrease in sales
      (c) 8% increase in sales
      (d) 8% decrease in sales
    32. A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs. 2500. He incurs a loss of 50% on the first and a profit of 25% on the second. Find his overall percent gain or loss.
      (a) 2647
      (b) 26
      (c) 28
      (d) 2847
    33. The cost price of 250 pens is equal to the S.P. of 125 pens. Find the percentage profit
      (a) 50%
      (b) 100%
      (c) 25%
      (d) 20%
    34. A man sells an article at a loss of 5%. If he had bought it at Rs. 20 more and sold it for Rs. 115 less, he would have increased a loss of 40%. Find the cost price of the article.
      (a) 1150
      (b) 500
      (c) 400
      (d) 1000
    35. A wholesaler gives 50 books to a retailer for the payment of 45 books at the printed price. The retailer sells the books at the printed price. What percent profit does the retailer make ?
      (a) 9%
      (b) 11%
      (c) 1119%
      (d) 10%

    Answer Key:-

    1. c
    2. d
    3. d
    4. b
    5. a
    6. a
    7. b
    8. c
    9. d
    10. a
    11. b
    12. d
    13. b
    14. a
    15. b
    16. c
    17. a
    18. d
    19. a
    20. c
    21. b
    22. b
    23. d
    24. d
    25. b
    26. a
    27. c
    28. b
    29. a
    30. d
    31. c
    32. d
    33. b
    34. b
    35. c

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  • Quantitative Aptitude Notes: Profit & Loss

    Jul 26 • Bank, Maths Notes • 2817 Views

    PROFIT & LOSS Notes for IBPS, SSC and SBI PO

    quantitative aptitude notes profit loss

    COST PRICE: The price at which a person buys an article is called the cost price of the article. Cost price is denoted by C.P.
    SELLING PRICE : The price at which an article is sold is called its selling price. Selling price is denoted by S.P.
    PROFIT (GAIN) : If S.P. of an article is more than its C.P. there is a profit (gain).
    Profit = S.P. – C.P.
    Percentage Profit = (Profit / C.P.) * 100
    LOSS : If S.P. of an article is less than its C.P., there is a loss.
    Loss = C.P. – S.P.
    Percentage loss = (loss / C.P.) * 100
    Percentage profit and percentage loss are always calculated on C.P. unless otherwise stated.
    Example : An article is bought for Rs. 300. Find its S.P. if it is sold at:
    1) 10% profit                                                       2) 20% loss
    Solution : Profit = 10% of C.P.
     = (10 / 100) * 300
    = 30
    S.P. = C.P. + profit
    = 300 +30
    = 330
    Loss = 20% of C.P.
    = (20 / 100) * 300
    = 60
    S.P. = C.P. – loss
    = 300 – 60
    = 240

    SHORT TRICKS

    Suppose there is a profit of P%, it means that S.P. is equal to (100+P)% of C.P. i.e.
    S.P. = C.P. *[ (100+p) / 100 ]
    If there is a loss of p% then,
    S.P. = C.P. (100-p)100
    Example : an article is sold for Rs. 480. Find its C.P. if it is sold at
    1) 20% profit                                          2) 20% loss
    Solution : 1) C.P. = [ S.P. *  (100 / 120) ]
     = 480 *  (100 / 120)
    = 400
     2) C.P. = 480 * (100 / 80)
    = 600
    Marked price: when we go to the market to purchase an article, we find the price of the article printed either on the article or on a tag attached to it. This price s called marked price (M.P.) of the article. The M.P. is also called listed price or quoted price.
    Discount: in order to dispose the old or damaged goods,some traders offer a certain percentage of the marked price of the goods as discount.
    Discount is always given on the M.P.
    Selling Price = M.P. – Discount
    If there is a discount of d%, it means that S.P. is equal to (100-d)% of M.P.
    S.P. = M.P. * [ (100-d) / 100 ]
    Overhead Charges: The extra cost that includes transportation fees, maintenance,packaging and advertisement fees etc. are called overheads.
    Overheads are always added to the C.P. to get the total C.P. and then profit % or loss % are calculated on the total C.P.
    Example: a manufacturer marks an article for Rs. 7500 and then sells it to a trader at 20% discount. Find the percentage profit made by the trader, if he sells this article at 10% discount.
    Solution: C.P. for trader = 7500 * (80 / 100)
    = 6000
    S.P. for trader = 7500 * (90 / 100)
     = 6750
    % profit = (750 / 6000) * 100
    = 12.5%
    Successive Discounts: In case of successive discounts, the first discounts, in order, is calculated on M.P. and is subtracted from it. The second discount is then calculated on the resulting amount is again subtracted and so on. The amount left after subtracting the last discount is selling price of the article.
    When discount is d%.
    S.P. = [(100-d) / 100] * M.P.
    In case of two successive discounts d1% and d2%
    S.P. = [(100 – d1) / 100 * (100 – d2) / 100 *M.P.]
    In case of three successive discounts d1%, d2% and d3%
    S.P. = [(100 – d1) / 100 * (100 – d2) / 100 ( 100 – d3) / 100 * M.P]. And so on.
    Example: The M.P. of an article is 100 and is available at three successive discounts 20%, 15%and 10%. Find the S.P. of an article.
    Solution:  S.P. = 100 * (80 / 100) * (85 / 100) * (90 / 100)
    = 61.2

    Worked-out Questions on Profit & Loss 

    1. An article is sold for Rs. 4600 at a gain of 15%. What would be the profit or loss percent if it is sold for Rs. 3600 ?
      Solution: C.P. = (100 / 115) * 4600
      = 4000
      If S.P. = 3600, then
      loss % = (400 / 4000) * 100
      = 10%
    1. A man sold his car at a loss of 5%. Had he sold it for Rs. 18000 more, he would have made a profit of 4%. Find the cost price of the car.
      Solution: Initial S.P. is at 5% loss
      New S.P. is at 4% profit
      The difference in the two S.P. = 9% of C.P.
      9% of C.P. = 18000
      C.P. = 18000 * (100 / 9)
      = Rs. 200000
    1. By selling two articles, a man gains Rs. 3750 on the whole. He sells one article for Rs.69000 at 15% profit. Find the cost price of the other article if it is sold at 20% loss.
      Solution: Profit = 69000 * (15 / 115)
      = 9000
      To gain on whole, he must have a loss of 9000 – 3750 = 5250 on the other article
      20% of C.P. = 5250
      C.P. = 5250 * 5
      = 26250
    1. Two brands of tea costing Rs. 850 and Rs. 950 per kg respectively are mixed in the ratio 3:5 by weight. If one-fourth of the mixture is sold at Rs. 1100 per kg and the remaining at the rate of Rs. 1200 per kg, find the profit percent on the whole.
      Solution: Let 3 kg of Rs. 850 per kg and 5 kg of 950 per kg be mixed together.
      C.P. of the mixture = 3 * 850 + 5 * 950
      = 7300
      One -fourth of 8 kg = 2 kg
      Remaining mixture = 6 kg
      S.P. of the mixture = (2 * 1100) + (6 * 1200)
      = 9400
      Profit % = (2100 / 7300) * 100
      = 28.77%
    1. A man sells an article at 5% above its cost price . if he had bought it at 5% less than what he paid for it and sold for it for Rs. 2 less, he would have gained 10% . find the cost price of the article.
      Solution:  Let C.P. = 100
      Then S.P. = 105
      If new C.P. = 95
      And new S.P. with 10%  profit = 104.5
      Then the difference in S.P. = .5
      When the difference is 2, then C.P. = 100 * (2 / .5)
      = 400
    1. S.P. of 20 identical pens is equal to the C.P. of 15 identical pens. Find the % profit or % loss.
      Solution: Let S.P. of 20 pens = 100
      S.P. of 15 pens = 75
      C.P. of 15 pens = 100
      % loss = (25 / 100) * 100
      = 25%
    1. A man buys an article whose marked price is Rs.800 and available at two successive discounts 25% and 15%. He tagged new M.P. on the article and give 10% discount further and want to sold at a 20% profit. Find the new M.P. of the article.
      Solution: C.P. of article for a man = 800 * (75 / 100) * (85 / 100)
      = 510
      S.P. of the article for a man = 510 * (120 / 100)
      = 612
      New M.P. = 612 * (100 / 90)
      = 680
                                            
    1. The profit earned after selling an article for Rs. 1516 is the same as loss incurred after selling the article for Rs. 1112. What is the cost price of the article ?
      Solution: Let profit = loss = x
      1516 – x = 1112 + x
      1516 – 1112 = 2x
      2x = 404
      x = 404/2
      x = 202
      C.P. = 1112 + 202
      = 1314
    1. A man sold a wristwatch for Rs. 2400 at a loss of 25%. At what rate should he have sold the wristwatch to earn a profit of 25% ?
      Solution: C.P. = 2400 * (100 / 75)
       = 3200
      New S.P. = 3200 * (125 / 100)
      = 4000
    1. What is a single discount equivalent to three successive discounts 20%,10% and 15% ?
      Solution: Let marked price be 100
      Then, S.P. = [ 100 * (80 /100) * (90 / 100) * (85 / 100) ]
      = 61.2
      Equivalent single discount = 100 – 61.2
      = 38.8%
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  • Reasoning Notes: Seating Arrangement

    Jul 24 • Bank, Reasoning Notes • 900 Views

    Seating Arrangement

    In this type of questions, some clues regarding sitting or placing sequence of any items is given. The item can be some person, place, animal or any noun. The sequence of arranging the item can be in any format such as circle, single row, parallel row, square, rectangle, pentagon, hexagon, octagon etc.

    In sitting arrangement, we have three types/forms of question as follows:
    (1) Line/Row-Single or Parallel
    (2) Circular table
    (3) Square/Rectangle/Pentagon/Hexagon/Octagon/Decagon table

    • Line/Row-Single or Parallel: Worked-out Problems

    Question 1. Seven persons A, B, C, D, E, F and G are standing in a straight line.
    D is to the right of G.
    C is between A and B.
    E is between F and D.

    There are three persons between G and B.
    Who is on the extreme left? (SSC CGL 2015)
    a) G                             b) A                                           c) B                                d) D
    Answer-G
    Pattern-Left<-G->D->E->F->B->C->A->Right
    Question 2. Six girls are standing in such a way that they form a circle, facing the centre. Subbu is to the left of Pappu, Revathi is between Subbu and Nisha, and Aruna is between Pappu and Keerthana. Who is to the left of Pappu?(SSC CGL 2013)
    (a) Subbu                (b) Keerthana                        (c) Nisha                              (d) Aruna
    Answer-Subbu
    Pattern=Subbbu<-Pappu<-Aruna<-Keerthana<-Nisha<-Revathi
    sitting arrangement
    Question 3. A group of friends are sitting in an arrangement one each at the corner of an octagon. All are facing the centre. Mahima is sitting diagonally opposite Rama, who is on Sushma’s right. Ravi is next to Sushma and opposite Girdhar, who is on Chandra’s left. Savitri is not on Mahima’s right but opposite Shalini. Who is on Shalini’s right? (SSC CGL 2010)
    (a) Ravi                     (b)  Mahima                          (c) Girdhar                       (d) Rama
    Answer-Ravi
    sitting arrangement
    Question 4. Six person A, B, C, D, E, F are sitting in 2 rows,3 in each. If E is not at  any end, D is second to left of F,C is neighbor of E and is sitting diagonally opposite to D and B is neighbor of F. Find who will be opposite to B?
    (a) A                            (b) E                                        (c) C                                  (d) D
    Answer– E
    sitting arrangement
    Question 5. Four girls are sitting on a bench to be photographed. Shikha is to the left of Reena. Manju is to the right of Reena. Rita is between Reena and Manju. Who would be second from the left in the photograph? (Bank PO 1994)
    (a) Reena                     (b) Shikha                             (c) Manju                          (d) Rita
    Answer– D (Rita)
    Right——-Manju->Rita->Reena->Shikha——-left. According to the given persons we have taken Left and Right and answering the questions according to our perception.
    Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it:
    (A) There are five friends. (B) They are standing in a row facing south.
    (C) Jayesh is to the immediate right of Alok. (D) Pramod is between Bhagat and Subodh.
    (E) Subodh is between Jayesh and Pramod.
    Right——–Bhagat->Pramod->Subodh->Jayesh->Alok——–Left (As they are facing south) (Bank PO 1994)
    Question 6. Who is at the extreme left end?
    a) Alok                          (b) Bhagat                                (c) Subodh                          (d) Data inadequate      (e) None of these
    Answer-(a)
    Question 7. Who is in the middle?
    (a) Bhagat                    (b) Jayesh                                 (c) Pramod                          (d) Subodh                     (e) Alok
    Answer-(d)
    Question 8. To find answers to the above two questions, which of the given statements can be dispensed with?
    (a) None                       (b) A only                                  (c) B only                             (d) C only                       (e) D only
    Answer-(b)
    Question 9. Five persons A,B,C,D and E are sitting in a row facing you such that D is on the left of C and B is on the right of E.A is on the right of C and B is on the left of D. If E occupies a corner position, then who is sitting in the center? (CBI 1995)
    (a) A                              (b) B                                            (c) C                                     (d) D
    Answer-(d)
    Right——–A–C–D–B–E—-Left
    Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it:
    In a seven storey building, having floors numbered one to seven, P,Q,R,S,T and V each live on a different floor.(the ground floor is numbered floor no 1,the floor above it floor no 2 and so on).One of the floors in the building is vacant. P lives on the fifth floor. No floor below fifth floor is vacant ALSO no odd numbered floor is vacant. Only S lives between T and V.T does not live on an odd numbered floor. T does not live on a floor immediately above or immediately below R’s floor. Q does not live on the bottom most floors. (UBI  PO 2010)
    sitting arrangement
    Question 10. Who lives on the topmost floor?
    (a) Q                              (b) S                                            (c) R                                      (d) V                   (e) No one as it is vacant.
    Answer-Q
    Question 11. On which of the following floors does R live?
    (a) Seventh                   (b )Sixth                                  (c) Third                                 (d) Second          (e) First
    Answer-First
    Question 12. Which of the following floors is vacant?
    (a) Seventh                    (b) Sixth                                  (c) Third                                 (d) Second             (e) Fourth
    Answer-Sixth
    Study the following information carefully to answer the given questions.
    Twelve people are sitting in two parallel rows containing six people each. In such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1,P,Q,R,S,T and V are seated and all of them facing south. In row-2 A,B,C,D,E and F are seated  and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the row.
    A sits third to right of D, neither A nor D sits at extreme ends. T faces D.V does not face A and V does not sit at any of the extreme ends. V is not an immediate neighbor of T.B sits at one of the extreme ends. Only two persons sit between B and E.E does not face V. Two persons sit between R and Q.R is not an immediate neighbor of T.C does not face V.P is not an immediate neighbor of R. (Corporation Bank PO 2011)
    sitting arrangement

    Question 13. Who among the following sit at extreme ends of the rows?
    (a) B, E                    (b) S, T                (c) P, R              (d) B, F                  (e) None of these
    Answer-(c) P, R
    Question 14. Who among the following faces A?
    (a) R                        (b) T                     (c) P                   (d) Q                         (e) S
    Answer-(e) S
    Question 15. How many persons are seated between T and S?
    (
    a) 1                          (b) 2                     (c) 3                   (d) 4                          (e) 5
    Answer-(b)2
    Question 16. P is related to V in the same way as C is related to F. To which of the following is E related to, following the same pattern?
    (a) B                         (b) D                    (c) C                   (d) A                            (e)none of these
    Answer-(a)B

    • Circular Table Sitting Arrangement


    Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions.
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting around a circle, facing the center. A sits fourth to the right of H while second to the left of F.C is not the neighbor of F and B.D sits third to the right of C.H never sits next to G. (Bank PO 2008)
    sitting arrangement

    Question 1. Who among the following sits between B and D?
    Question 2. Which of the following pairs sit between H and G?
    Question 3. Who is immediate right of A?
    Question 4. Who sits second to the right of B?
    Question 5. Which is the position of B with respect of C?
    Question 6. Four of the following are alike in a certain way based on their position in the sitting arrangement & so form the group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    AE HF BD GE CH
    Answer
    1-F

    2-CE
    3-D
    4-E
    5-B is third to the left of C/B is fifth to the right of C
    6-AE

    Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions.
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting around a circular table facing the center. Each one of them has a different profession viz. Doctor, Engineer, Architect, Pilot, Banker, Teacher, Businessman and Politician.The politician sits third to right of G.C is an immediate neighbor of G. Architect sits second to right of C.B sits third to right of H.H is neither a politician nor an architect. Only one person sits between C and the teacher. A and F are immediate neighbors of each other .Neither A nor F is a politician. Doctor sits second to right of A. Two people sit between D and the engineer. D is not a politician. Pilot is not an immediate neighbor of the politician. Banker sits second to left of A.
    sitting arrangement

    Question 7. Who among the following is a businessman?
    Question 8. What is the position of F with respect to the politician?
    Question 9. Who sits exactly between the teacher and the engineer?
    Question 10. What is the profession of G?
    Question 11. Four of the following are alike in a certain way based on the sitting arrangement and thus form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    (a) G-Doctor                 (b) E-Architect                    (c) H-Businessman                 (d) E-Politician            (e) D-Pilot
    Question 12. What is the profession of E?
    Question 13. Which of the following is true with respect to the given seating arrangement?
    (a) D is an immediate neighbor of G
    (b) G is a banker
    (c) The banker and the teacher are immediate neighbors of each other
    (d) Pilot sits exactly between architect and the businessman.
    (e) Doctor sits second to the right of the businessman
    Answers
    7- A
    8- F is Second to the right of politician/F is sixth to the right of politician
    9- H (Doctor) sits between Teacher and Engineer
    10-Pilot
    11- E-Politician
    12- Politician
    13- Doctor sits second to the right of the businessman
    Study the following information carefully.
    Eight colleagues, A,B,C,D,E,F,G and H are sitting around a circular table facing center not necessarily in the same order. Each one of them holds a different post viz. Manager, Company Secretary, Chairman, President, Vice-President, Group Leader, Financial Adviser and Managing Director. A sits third to right of the Managing Director. Only two people sit between the Managing Director and H.Vice President and company secretary are immediate neighbor of each other. Neither A nor H is a Vice President or a Company Secretary. Vice President is not an immediate neighbor of  the Managing Director. Manager sits second to the left E.E is not an immediate neighbor of H. The Manager is an immediate neighbor of both group Leader and the Financial Adviser. Financial Adviser  sits third to right of B.B is not the Vice President. C sits to the immediate right of Chairman. A is not the chairman. F is not an immediate neighbor of A.G is not an immediate neighbor of the Manager.
    Question 14. Who among the following sits third to the left of E?
    Question  15. Who among the following is the president of the company ?
    Question 16. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on the given arrangement and thus form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    (a) F-Chairman
    (b) G-President
    (c) D-Manager
    (d) A-Financial Adviser
    (e) B-Managing Director
    Question 17. Who among the following is the Group Leader?
    Question 18. Who among the following sit exactly between the Managing Director and H
    Question 19. Which post does the B hold in the company?
    Answers
    14- D(Financial Adviser)
    15- A
    16- B(Managing Director)
    17-F
    18-EF
    19-Company secretary
    sitting arrangement
    Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.
    Eight persons -J,K,L,M,P,Q,R and S are sitting around a circular table at equal distances between each other,but not necessarily in the same order.Some of the people are facing the center while some others are facing outside(i.e. In a direction opposite to the center. (Note:-Facing the same direction means if one faces the center then the other also faces the center and vice versa.Facing the opposite directions means if one faces the center then the other faces outside and vice-versa.)
    K sits second to the right of P.K is an immediate neighbor of J.P faces towards center. P is to the immediate left of M.Neither K nor L is an immediate neighbor of M.S sits second to the right of M.L is the immediate right of S.R sits third to the right of Q.L and Q face the same direction as that of M.Q sits second to the right of J. Both the immediate neighbors of Q face the same direction. Both the immediate neighbor of M face the same direction.
    sitting arrangement

    Question 20. How many persons in the given arrangement face outside?
    Question 21. Who is sitting third to the left of L?
    Question 22. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on the given seating arrangement and hence they form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    (a) P                  (b) Q                (c) J                    (d) L                       (e) S
    Question 23. Who  sits exactly between K and P if one moves clockwise from K?
    Question 24. What is the position of R with respect to Q?
    Question 25. Who is sitting second to the left of S?
    Answers
    20- Five
    21- M is sitting third to the left of L
    22- Except P,all others face outside
    23- Q sits exactly between K and P when one moves clockwise from L
    24- R is the third to the right of Q
    25- M is sitting second to the left of S.
    Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.
    Eight Person E,F,G,H,I,J,K, and L are seated around a square table-two on each side.there are three lady members and they are not seated next to each other.J is between L and F. G is between I and F.H, a lady member,is second to the left of J.F, a male member,is seated opposite E, a lady member. There is a lady member between F and I. (Bank PO 1995)
    Question 26. Who among the following is seated between E and H?
    (a) F                         (b) I                           (c) J                            (d) Cannot be determined                      (e) None of these
    Question 27. How many persons are seated between K and F?
    (
    a) 1          (b) 2                 (c) 3                (d) cannot be determined                (e) None of these
    Question 28. Who among the following are the three lady members?
    (a) E, G, J                    (b) E, H, G        (c) G, H, J                (d) Cannot be determined                (e)  None of these
    Question 29. Who among the following is to the immediate left of F?
    (a) G          (b) I             (c) J                     (d) Cannot be determined                (e) none of these
    Question 30. Which of the following is true about J?
    (a)J is male                (b)J is Female                   (c)Sex of J cannot be determined                         (d)Position of J cannot be determine             (e)none of these.
    sitting arrangement
    Answers-
    26- e
    27- c
    28- b
    29- c
    30- a
    Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions.
    Eight friends, Meenal, Rumia, Shikha, Ali, Peter, Harleen, Ketan and Bharat are sitting around a rectangular table in such a way that four of them sit at four corners of the rectangle while four sit in the middle of each of the four sides. The ones who sit at the four corners face the center while those who sit in the middle of the sides face outside.
    Bharat sits second to the right of Shikha. Bharat does not sit at any of the corners. Meenal sits third to the right of peter. Peter is not an immediate neighbor of Shikha. Rumia and Ketan are immediate neighbour of each other but Rumia does not sit at any of the corners of the table. Harleen is neither an immediate neighbor of Peter nor Shikha. (Allahabad Bank PO 2011)
    sitting arrangement

    Question 31. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    (a)Peter                     (b)Rumai                             (c) Harleen                 (d)Shikha                        (e)Bharat
    Answer-(3)
    Question 32. Who sits third to the left of Ali?
    (a) Bharat                 (b) Rumia                        (c)Shikha                     (d)Peter                          (e)Cannot be determined
    Answer-(a)
    Question 33. What is the position of peter with respect to Meenal?
    (a) To immediate Left
    (b) Second to the left
    (c) Third to the left
    (d) Third to the right
    (e) Second to the right
    Answer-(d)
    Question 34. Who among the following sits second to the right of Ketan?
    (a) Shikha                  (b)Ali                              ( c)Bharat                   (d) Harleen                    ( e)Meenal
    Answer-(d)
    Question 35. Who among the following represent the immediate neighbors of Harleen?
    (a) Meenal,Ketan
    (b) Bharat,Rumia
    (c) Bharat,Meenal
    (d) Ali,Rumia
    (e) Ali,Ketan
    Answer-(e)
    Question 36. Who among the following is an immediate neighbor of Meenal?
    (a) Rumia
    (b) Ali
    (c) Ketan
    (d) Harleen
    (e) Shikha
    Answer-(e)

    These notes have been provided by Plutus Academy.

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  • Exactly what are Values of a Two-Year College or university.

    Jul 23 • Uncategorized • 361 Views

    Superior instruction within this nation is shortly becoming a necessity in the business team in lieu of an extravagance. Inside of the past the consumers who had a secondary university training continue to had the possibility to fabricate a excellent community for them selves and their people. All those days are fairly quickly becoming a new dieing coal belonging to the previous. Over the off opportunity that you choose to wish to have massive getting likely amid your life time you are utterly restricted by your figuring out future and then the stage of instruction you will have gotten.

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    Junior colleges also provide a incredible opportunity to get started with your grasping mission inside of a way that is definitely a very good offer a good deal more very easily decent to the standard nationwide than an all out school. These colleges are to the incredible extent employee colleges but nevertheless there’s some that let understudies the know-how of residing on the school grounds in a a whole lot lessen value than most realistic schools charge for that same or essentially the same as advantages.

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    Junior faculties offer a very good start for many individuals who’re looking for sophisticated education whether to aid their professions or merely to find fulfillment on somebody stage in everyday life. One can find many amazing tasks in certified fields and scholarly fields that can be investigated and experiments in the junior school stage.

    For graduating secondary school understudies junior schools assist understudies direct into the alteration from secondary school to high school without going through the way in which of life stun that a small number of schools can place understudies by means of. You will find that there are quite often a great number of odds to satisfy instructive and likewise social expectations on the junior college or university degree for understudies that happen to be occupied with in search of following a junior college schooling.

    You ought to furthermore find that junior schools tend to be a lot less demanding to expending close to putting apart funds and expenditure resources for both your very own university preparation or perhaps the instructive fees within your children. Owning them head over to a junior school for your longer time then exchanging to your University can spare several funds and give you a little bit of head that the young people are as however accepting a brilliant degree of instruction.

    Seriously, to the off prospect that you’re searching for an astounding quality on the subject of instruction you would do your self or your children an injuries in case you don’t look on the junior college or university choices on your general vicinity prior to when dove in and jumping in to the school means of life. You will see that junior faculties frequently supply you with an equal stage of instruction for that essential classes that first and 2nd calendar year undergrads repeatedly get, they’re a vastly enhanced esteem for that income, and they’re an fantastic attributes for the folks who’re attempting to juggle their training with household and work obligations.

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  • English Comprehension Notes: Pronoun

    Jul 23 • Bank, English Notes, Uncategorized • 2562 Views

    Definition of Pronoun  

    • A word is used in place of noun is called Pronoun.
    • In order to avoid repetition of a noun in a sentence, pronoun is used.

    Kinds of Pronoun

    Personal Pronoun

    • Personal pronoun stands for the three persons, i.e. – First person, second person and third person.
    Form First Person Second Person Third Person
    Singular
    Plural
    I, me
    We, us
    You
    You
    He, she, it, his, her, its
    They, their, them
    Possessive Adjective/ Dependent Pronoun Possessive Pronoun/ Independent Pronoun
    Your
    Her
    His
    It
    Their
    Yours
    Hers
    His
    Its
    Theirs

    E.g.: – This is your house. Your is a dependent pronoun as it needs an object to finish the sentence.
    E.g.: – This house is yours. Yours is an independent pronoun as it does not need object with it.     

    Rule: – If all the three persons or two out of three persons come in a single sentence, the order is 231.
    E.g.:-You, he and I shall study for the exam.
    E.g.: – He and I have finished our work.
    E.g.: – You and he have done a great job.

    Rule: – If all the three persons or two out of three persons come in a single sentence and some mistake is committed by all the three persons together then, the order is 123.

    E.g.: – I, You and he have made a mistake to go for salsa classes.
    E.g.: – You and he have done this disobedience.

    Rule: – If pronouns are in plural form, then the order should be 123.
    E.g.: – We, You and they should now get down at Yamuna metro station.

    Rule: – An objective case comes after let, like between…and, but, except and all prepositions.
    E.g.: – L
    et me do this task.
    E.g.:-There is no conflict
    between her and me.
    E.g.:-Everybody
    but her was present for the cooking class.
    E.g.:-She laughed
    at me.
    E.g.: – everybody attended the housewarming party
    except him.

    Rule: – If there is a comparison between two nominative cases then the pronoun of the nominative case is used after As/than.
    E.g.: – She is
    as fast as me.    – wrong
    E.g.: – She is
    as fast as I.        – correct
    E.g.: – He runs
    faster than her. – wrong
    E.g.: – He runs
    faster than she. – correct
    E.g.: – I know her
    as much as him.
    Last sentence is correct because it means I know her as much as I know him  

    Rule: – Sentence starting with ‘It’ and followed by any form of ‘be’ has to be in ‘nominative case’.
    E.g.: –
    It is her who is responsible for this failure. – Wrong
    E.g.: –
    It is she who is responsible for this failure. – Correct
    E.g.: –
    It is he who is going to do a business.
    It is basically working as a subject to emphasize noun and pronoun.

    Uses Of ‘It’

    It is used for non- living things, animals, infants and insects whereas in plural form ‘they’ will be used.
    E.g.:-France is a developed country. It is a fully efficient in all terms.
    E.g.:-Vasant Kunj and Saket are developed colonies of Delhi. They are facing water crisis.
    ‘It’ is used to point out time, weather, temperature, distance or any other natural event.
    E.g.:- It is summer.
    E.g.:- It is 8 o’clock.
    E.g.:- It is July.
    E.g.:- It is afternoon.
    Note: – Since we know ‘It’ is a pronoun hence ‘it’ cannot be placed near noun.
    E.g.: – It folder is mine. – Wrong
    E.g.: – It is my folder.   – Correct

    Possessive Pronoun

    Pronoun that shows possession.
    It includes words such as mine, ours, his, hers, theirs.

    Nominative Case Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
    I
    We
    He
    She
    It
    They
    My
    Our
    His
    Her
    Its
    Their
    Mine
    Ours
    His
    Hers

    Theirs

    Rule: – Possessive pronouns are not used before nouns.
    E.g.: –
    Ours school was closed in summer vacations. (Wrong)
    E.g.: –
    Our school was closed in summer vacations. (Correct)
    Note: – I) possessive adjectives are used before nouns.
    E.g.: – This is my pen.
    II) If noun has already mentioned, possessive pronoun is used to avoid repetition.
    E.g.: – This pen is mine.

    Possessive Pronouns Meaning(Possessive Adjective)
    Mine
    Ours
    Yours
    His
    Hers
    Theirs
    My + Noun
    Our + Noun
    Your + Noun
    His + Noun
    Her + Noun
    Their + Noun

    III) ‘His’ is acting as both possessive adjective and possessive pronoun.
    IV) ‘It’ is used as possessive adjective and cannot be treated as possessive pronoun.

    Rule: – Possessive Pronoun can be treated as subject/object of the verb.
    E.g.: –   
    Yours is a new car – correct
    Your car is a new car.
    E.g.: – She has lost my kit as well as
    yours.
    She has lost my kit as well as your kit.

    Rule: – Do not use possessive pronoun with separation, leave, excuse, mention, report, pardon, sight, favor.
    E.g.: – Your separation is very painful to her. – Correct
    E.g.: – He did make mention of you. – Correct

    Reflexive Pronoun

    Reflexive pronoun include words such as – myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves, himself, herself, itself, yourselves.
    Reflexive Pronoun is used to emphasis personal pronoun.
    E.g.: – She
    herself is the cause of her death.
    E.g: – The poor woman poisoned
    herself and his children.  

    Rule: – Use Reflexive Pronoun after acquit, avail, reconcile, amuse, resign, avenge, exert, apply, adapt, adjust, pride, absent and enjoy.
    E.g.: – The Officers
    acquitted themselves well during the crisis.
    E.g.: – The students
    exert themselves a lot at the time of examination.
    E.g.: – You should
    avail yourself of this occasion.
    Note: – need of reflexive pronoun as below.
    They enjoyed the party(noun need of reflexive pronoun)
    They enjoyed during vacations(use ‘themselves’ after ‘enjoyed’)
    If ‘enjoyed’ is followed by an object, do not use a reflexive pronoun, but if the object is not mentioned, we use a reflexive pronoun.

    Also read about Noun as it is a vital part of Speech

    Note: – Look at the examples.
    1. He was absent – correct
    2. He absented herself – correct
    If absent is used as a verb, a reflexive pronoun is used.

    Rule: – Keep, stop, turn, qualify, bathe, move, rest & hide do not take a reflexive pronoun after them.
    E.g.:-You should
    keep yourself away from bad boys.
    E.g.: – the
    hid himself in the room  

    Rule: – Reflexive pronoun cannot be used as a subject/object of a sentence unless a noun/pronoun comes before it.
    E.g.: – I
    myself did this work.
    E.g.: – Rohit will do the work for
    myself. – Wrong
    E.g.: – Rohit will do the work for
    me. – Wrong

    Distributive Pronoun(Singular Pronoun)

    Used for individuals & objects referring to them as one at a time.
    Such as, neither, each, every, none, anyone etc.

      • Each – is always used for two or more than two.
      • Every – is always used for more than two only.
      • Either- are always used for only two.
      • Neither – are always used for only two.
      • Anyone – are always used for more than two
      • None – are always used for more than two

    Rule: – Either of these 3 friends is naughty (incorrect)
    Either of these two pains is blue (correct)
    E.g.:- One of these friends is naughty.
    E.g.:- Neither is the two girls is active.
    E.g.:- None of his 4 sons looked after him.
    E.g.:- Every of the 6 volunteers have shown unique skill. – Incorrect
    E.g.:- Each of the 6 volunteers has shown unique skill. – Correct
    Note: – New born babies, infant use ’its’ rather than his/her. Bees, fly, mosquitoes, temp, sound   weather use ‘its’ for these words.
    E.g.: – The chilling weather & its consequences.
    E.g.: – It’s winter.
    E.g.: – It’s 6 o’clock.
    E.g.: – It’s morning.
    Note: – With collective noun use always ‘it’s’ because collective noun is always treated as non-living.

    Reciprocal Pronoun

    Words use to point out mutual relationships such as each other, one another etc.
    E.g.: – Both of the brothers love
    each other.
    E.g.: – Indian should not fight with one another.
    E.g.: – The thief was so afraid that his knees knocked one another.

    Demonstrative Pronoun

    Used to point out toward noun/nouns.
    It consist of this, that, these, those, such, the same.
    E.g.: –
    This is my car.
    “This” denotes demonstrative pronoun in above example. Since “This” followed by verb therefore acting as pronoun.
    E.g.: –
    This car is mine.
    “This” denotes demonstrative adjective in above example. Since “This” followed by a noun and that is how it qualifies noun and acting as adjective.
    They are also used before nouns. In such case they are called as demonstrative pronoun adjective.

    Relative Pronoun

    Words used for nouns to show them ‘relating to such as who, which, that, whose, whom etc.
    E.g.: – Ram is talking to you
    who has a good knowledge of literature.

    Noun/Pronoun + Who + Verb
    Who
    Whom
    Whose
    Which
    That
    Is always used for persons(as a subject).
    Is always used for persons (as a object).
    Is always used for possessive case(used for all).
    Is always used for non-living and animals.
    Is used in place of who and which.

    Examples of Relative Pronoun

    • In some of the towns there is a scarcity of water which occurrence repeatedly has defeated the system. – Wrong
    • In some of the towns there is a scarcity of water whose occurrence repeatedly has defeated the system.- Correct
    • It’s your hope which presence makes your life meaningful. – Wrong
    • It’s your hope whose presence makes your life meaningful. – Correct
    • I saw a tusker whom half tusk was broken. – Wrong
    • I saw a tusker whose half tusk was broken. – Correct
    • The police caught the gang of robbers who were planning to rob. – Wrong
    • The police caught the gang of robbers which was planning to rob. – Correct
    • We have concluded some methods whose derive our previous equation. – Wrong
    • We have concluded some methods whose derive our previous equation.- Correct
    • Have you seen a building which includes hundred floors? – Correct

    Rule: – If a Noun + Relative Pronoun(whose) + Noun
    Then, relative pronoun must be whose.

    Rule: – If a Collective noun + Relative pronoun + Verb
    Then, relative pronoun must be which.

    Examples For whom and which
    1. Jawahar was an honorable man who they thought had parted the nation. – Correct
    Subject no.1          – Jawahar
    Helping verb no.1 – was
    Subject no.2          – who
    Helping verb no.2 – had
    Subject no.3          – they
    Helping verb no.3 – thought
    2.
    She is a hardworking girl whom we supported has qualified the  exam.- Wrong
    She is a hardworking girl Who we supported has qualified the exam. – Correct
    Subject no.1          – she
    Helping verb no.1 – is
    Subject no.2          – who
    Helping verb no.2 – has
    Subject no.3          – we
    Helping verb no.3 – supported
    3.
    Everybody greets Vishal who she treats a terrorist – Wrong
    Everybody greets Vishal whom she treats a terrorist – Correct
    Subject no.1          – Everybody
    Helping verb no.1 – greets
    Subject no.2         – she
    Helping verb no.2 – treats
    4.
    You can defeat Ashish whom has defeated everyone – Wrong
    You can defeat Ashish who has defeated everyone – Correct
    Subject no.1          – You
    Helping verb no.1 – can
    Subject no.2          – who
    Helping verb no.2 – has
    5.
    Raman is your very good friend whom everyone can trust.- Correct
    Subject no.1          – Raman
    Helping verb no.1 – is
    Subject no.2         – everyone
    Helping verb no.2 – can
    6.
    They hate everything and everybody who reminds them of their past life.- Wrong
    They hate everything and everybody that reminds them of their past life. – Correct
    7. Everything stands for non-living things and everybody stands for persons.
    8.
    It is a fact that all the humans and all the animals which are present there can’t be my friend – Wrong
    9.
    It is a fact that all the humans and all the animals that are present there can’t be my friend.-Correct

    Rule: – Number of subjects must be equal to number of helping verbs.
    Note: – By placing who subject increases and by placing whom subject decreases.

    Rule: – Who + Which = That
    Use ‘that’ when which and who are equally required in a sentence.

    Rule: – Words like everything, the only, nothing, any, all, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, little, the few, the little will take ‘that’ after them.
    E.g.: – My father has given me everything that I needed.
    E.g.: – This is the only pen that I bought yesterday.
    E.g.: – My wife has spent the little money that I gave her.

    Rule: – Sense of repetition also use ‘that’.
    E.g.: – This could be the highest peak that you can reach.
    E.g.: – The only help that you can give me is your time.
    E.g.: – He is the man that helped me yesterday.

    Indefinite Pronoun

    Words used for noun in vague or general meaning such as everybody, somebody, nobody, anybody, everybody, someone, no one, anyone, everything, something, nothing, anything, all, some, any, both, another, much, few, little.
    Rule: – If one is used as the subject, nominative case ‘one’ and objective pronoun – ‘oneself’ is used.
    E.g.: – One should do one’s duty oneself.
    E.g.: – One should keep one’s promise.
    E.g.: – She
    hardly talks to everyone in the class.- Wrong
    She hardly talks to anyone in the class.- Correct
    Hardly – gives negative sense

    Rule: – Hardly, Scarcely, rarely, very rare, seldom – all such words give negative sense. So these   words use anyone as an objective pronoun.
    E.g.: – They haven’t tried every competition in their life. – Wrong
    They haven’t tried any competition in their life. – Correct
    E.g.: – Who is a better of the two?  – Wrong
    Which is a better of the two? – Correct
    Note: – In case of selection – use which.
    E.g.: – Oneself can do one’s better than others – wrong
    One can do one’s better than others – correct
    Oneself is a reflexive pronoun which can be placed as a subject or object in a sentence.

    Interrogative Pronoun

    Words used for asking questions are called interrogative pronouns.
    Such as who, which, whom, whose, etc.
    E.g.: – what do you do for living?
    E.g.: – Whom do you think could qualify for Olympics?

    Rule: – Preposition + whom can be used but not preposition who.
    E.g.: – By whom was the Mahabharata written?
    E.g.: – Who was the Ramayana written by?
    Note: – If preposition is used at the end of the sentence, then who comes at the beginning of the sentence.

    These notes have been provided by Plutus Academy.

     

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