Verb from English Grammar
- Verb is a acting or doing words.
- A verb is a word that is used to tell something about a subject or a thing that follows –
- Messi plays football – acting or doing words.
- Sehwag is scolded for not playing well – happening verb.
- Virat Kohli is a cricketer – being verb.
- Finite Verbs:-
- It is limited by the number of persons(singular/plural) or the number of things.
- Finite verbs depends on the type of subject.
- It can be the number of main verb that shows tense(past/present/future) or number (singular/plural).
- She wants to play.
- They want to play.
- He is watching cricket match.
- They are watching cricket match.
- Non -Finite Verbs:-
- It is not limited by the number of persons (singular/plural) or the number of things.
- Finite verbs does not depend on the type/number of subject.
- She wants to go
- They want to go
- I like watching discovery channel.
- They like watching discovery channel.
- Finite Verbs:-
- Finite Verbs is of two types :- i) Helping Verbs ii) Main Verbs
- Further Helping verbs are of two types :-
- i) Helping Verbs
a) Modals/Modal auxiliary verbs :- It include verbs such as – will, must, shall, can, may,
b) Main helping verbs :-It contain verbs such as – is, am, are, was, were, has, have, do, does.
- ii) Main Verbs
- Main Verbs are of two types:-
- Transitive Verbs:-
- Transit means “to move”
- A verb requires an object to give the complete sense to the sentence, called as Transitive Verbs.
- He teaches her.
- She goes to school.
- Reshu made a doll house.
- In above examples, verbs like teaches, goes and made are verbs and objects such as – her, school and house respectively placed with them in order to provide the complete the meaning to the sentence.
- Intransitive Verbs:-
- In Transit means not taking direct object.
- A verb which does not require an object to give the complete meaning of a sentence.
- The woman smiled.
- The girl cried.
- He stopped
- In the above examples, verbs like – smiled, cried and stopped are used and do not need to place an object with them as it gives the complete sense to the subject.
Note:- What or whom used transitive verbs in interrogative sentences as they provide an objective answer.
Eg:- What does your father do?
He is a
Eg:- Whom do you think is eligible for next level of the game?
- I think Sushmita is eligible for next level of the game.
Rule:- Transitive Verbs also takes two objects at a time i.e. direct object and indirect object.
Verb from English Grammar for competitive exams like Bank Po , SSC
- Ram gave me an orange.
Subject – Ram
Verb – gave
Indirect object – me
Direct object – an orange.
- The teacher taught us a lesson.
Subject – The teacher
Verb – taught
Indirect object – us
Direct object – a lesson.
- Will you make me a cup of coffee?
Subject – Will you
Verb – make
Indirect object – me
Direct object – cup of coffee?
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Rule:- Few verbs which are acting in both ways as transitive and intransitive verbs.
Eg:- Reena cried for chocolate. – (treated as Transitive verb)
Eg:- Reena cried a lot – (treated as Intransitive verb)
Eg:- The guest rang the bell. – (treated as Transitive verb)
Eg:- The guest bell rang. – (treated as Intransitive verb)
Eg:- The driver stopped the bus. – (treated as Transitive verb)
Eg:- The bus stopped suddenly. – (treated as Intransitive verb)
- Non – Finite Verbs:-
- Non-Finite Verbs is of three types :- i) Infinitive Verbs ii) Gerund Verbs iii) Participle Verbs
- i) Infinitive Verbs:- (to + V1)
- It is treated as noun and a verb. Therefore, it is also called as Verb-Noun.
- To err is human.
- He wants to play.
- I want to study science.
- To err – used as a subject +V1 (1st form of the verb)
- To play – used as an object (to +v1)
- To study is the object of want (verb), but if science is placed as an object then ‘to study’ treated as a verb.
- Therefore, ‘to +v1’ acts as both noun and verb.
- ii) Gerund Verbs:- (‘V1 + ing’)
- It is indicated by ‘ V1 +ing’.
- It is also treated as noun and a verb.Therefore, gerund also called as Verb-Noun.
- Walking is a good exercise.
- Smoking is injurious to health.
- I like watching cricket matches.
- I learnt swimming.
- In first and second example v1+ing comes in “walking and smoking” which are treated as objects.
- In third example “watching” is the object of the verb “like” but if cricket matches is taken as an object, then watching is treating as a verb.
- In fourth example, “Swimming” – v1+ing is treated as an object. Hence v1+ing acting as both noun and a verb.
Note:- With the following adjectives/phrases/verbs – v1+ing is used after ‘to’. Verb+used to, accustomed to, averse to, with a view to, addicted to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to, given to, taken to, prone to.
- He is addicted to drinking.
- I am looking forward to meeting
- She was used to cooking on occasions when she was in Scotland.
- Hence, we know from the above examples that all the prepositions (including ‘to’), if a verb comes, the verb must be in v1+ing form.
- She is prone to making same dish again and again.
- She was used to calling me when she was in Bangalore.
- I used to walk in the park.
- Difference Between used to+v1 and used to+v1+ing
|Used to +v1+ing||Used to +v1|
|If a verb comes before ‘used to’ v1+ing comes after used to||If a verb does not come before ‘used to’, v1 verb comes after ‘used to’|
|It indicates the habit of a person.||It shows a routine action of past|
|It can be used in any tense, the verb and its forms that precedes ‘used to’ indicates the tense of a sentence.||It can be used only in past tense.|
- Participle is defined as a verb that can act as a verb as well as adjective.
- Participle is of three types –
- a) Present Participle :- (V1+ing)
- In case of Present Participle, V1+ing shows an action or an incomplete action.
- Hearing the noise, we came into the room.
- Thinking all is well, she went to bed.
- b) Past Participle :- (V3)
- In case of Past Participle, V3 denotes a completed action or state of a thing that is being spoken of.
- Driven by poverty, he committed suicide.
- Deceived by her friend, she was left in the lurch.
- c) Perfect Participle :- (Having +V3)
- In case of Perfect Participle, having V3 denotes an action being completed in past.
- Having +V3 (perfect participle) is used for such cases.
- Having done with it, they got down to another task.
- Having rested, they started their routine again.
- Causative Verbs:-
- Verbs such as – have, get and make are called as Causative Verbs.
- Usually, Subject does the work on the object.
- Example:- She helps the postman.
- But if S2 induces another subject S1 to do the verb on the object, then causative verbs are used for it.
- She made him do the whole job.
- She – S2
- Made – make (causative verb)
- Him – S1
- Do – Verb
- The whole job – object
- I got him suspended by the department officer.
- I – S2
- Got – get (causative verb)
- Him – object
- Suspended – Verb
- Department officer – S1
- Have the door opened?
- Have – Causative verb
- The door – Object
- Opened – Verb
- I cannot get your homework done by her.
- I – S2
- Cannot get your – get (causative verb)
- Your homework – Object
- Done – Verb
- Her – S1
- Differentiate between Make and Have/Get.
- Sentences with causative verbs (get/have) has an optional S1 and if S1 comes in these sentences then it must take by + S1 after the use of get/have whereas, S1 is mandatory in case of make used as a causative verbs.
- Main Verbs takes V3 form when get/have is used as a causative verbs whereas, in case of make used as a causative verbs – main verb takes V1 form.
- In above examples, Get/ Have / Make changes according to the tense.
- Some Important facts/ Rules of Verb
- With modal auxiliary verbs – V1 form of main verb is used.
Eg:- She can do this work.
Eg:- Ram will help you.
Eg:- I could not come for the dinner.
- Main auxiliary verb – can, will, could are used with which main verbs are used as – do, help and come respectively.
- Has/have/had + V3
Eg:- I have gone Delhi last year.
Eg:- She has done my homework.
- Do/does/did + V1 (1st form of the verb)
Eg:- Sema goes to school everybody.
Eg:- Purnima does not write a letter.
Eg:- He did not come to my place.
Rule:- When two subjects are connected /joined by words such as – as well as, like, unlike, besides, in addition to, with, together with, along with, and not, rather than, no less than, except, nothing, but, more than one – the verb is used as per the first subject.
Eg:- The teacher as well as his students were honoured by the institute.- wrong
Eg:- The teacher as well as his students was honoured by the institute.- correct
Eg:- The girl, and not her friends were involved in a crime. – wrong
Eg:- The girl, and not her friends was involved in a crime. – correct
Eg:- More men than one have been arrested by income tax department. – correct
Eg:- My sister is no less than my cousin is strict for her practice. – correct.
Rule:- When two subjects are merged by ’not only-but also’, neither – nor, either- or, none- but, then the verb is used according to the nearest subject.
Eg:- Neither the players nor their coach were present in the dressing room.- wrong
Eg:- Neither the players nor their coach was present in the dressing room.- correct
Eg:- None but the students of our academy are responsible for its result. – wrong
Eg:- None but the students of our academy is responsible for its result. – correct
Eg:- One or two balls is required – wrong
Eg:- One or two balls are required – correct
Eg:- I or she is to be awarded? – correct
Eg:- Am I or she to be punished? – correct.
Rule:- With plural nouns such as – amount, sum, distance, quantity, time, period, as a whole use singular form of verb.
Eg:- Five miles are not a long distance – wrong
Eg:- Five miles is not a long distance – correct
Eg:- Four hundred rupees were not a large amount – wrong
Eg:- Four hundred rupees was not a large amount – correct
Eg:- This much quantity of water are sufficient – wrong
Eg:- This much quantity of water is sufficient – correct
Eg:- Tell me how much amount of money are required by you – wrong
Eg:- Tell me how much amount of money is required by you – correct
Rule:- In compound sentences both helping verbs and main verbs must be mentioned separately. If they differ in number, form or voice. In such cases one verb cannot act for both the clauses.
Eg:- She has not and will not marry in future. – wrong
Eg:- She has not married and will not marry in future. – correct
Eg:- She is dull but her brothers intelligent – wrong
Eg:- She is dull but her brothers are intelligent – correct
Eg:- He disappeared last month and found dead near a parking area of a mall.- wrong
Eg:- He disappeared last month and was found dead near a parking area of a mall. – correct
Eg:- She is intelligent but her brother dull. – correct
Eg:- I did not and will not go there – correct
Rule:- When negative verbs introduced in a sentence then it is applied in principal clause, it is advisable to make principal clause in negative.
Eg:- I think she will not pass – wrong
Eg:- I don’t think she will pass – correct
Eg:- I suppose she will not perform in this year – wrong
Eg:- I don’t suppose she will not perform in this year – correct
Note:- This rule doesn’t apply to – I hope.
Important Auxiliary Verbs:-
Rule:- Modals/ modal auxiliary verbs are not treated as main verbs. They only treated as helping verbs.
Eg:- She can run for the competition.
Can – helping verbs
Run – main verbs
Eg:- Jai should work hard.
Should – helping verbs
Work – main verbs
Rule:- Modals auxiliary verbs/modals are not used in V1, V2, V3, V4 (V1+ing), s/es form. Its form doesn’t change with subject, person or number.
Eg:- She would do your homework.
Would – modal
Do – V1 form
Eg:- He should understand the problem
Should – modal
Understand – V1 Form
Rule:- “Ought to” and “used to” is always followed by infinitive to +V1.
Eg:- She used to take dinner at 7.
Eg:- We ought to respect our teachers.
Uses Of Modals
- Can – Power, ability and capacity.
- Could – Past ability, power or capacity.
Eg:- She can recite a poem.
- Eg:- He could not come for a class.
- May:- Possibility
Eg:- It may rain this month.
- May:- Willingness in an optative sentence.
Eg:- May god bless you.
- May:- When may used for respect/request, it is always used in an interrogative form.
Eg:- May I come in ?
- May:- Use ‘may’ in subordinate clause if principal clause is in present tense and the subordinate clause starts with that/so that/ in order that and subordinate clause denotes a purpose.
Note:- Possibly/Likely cannot used with may.
- Might – less possibility. May express more possibility.
Eg:- She might pass the exam but I do not have much hope.
- Must – greater possibility
Eg:- She stays in Boston and travels by flight. She must be rich.
- Must – Compulsion
Eg:- Candidate must read all the instructions of the examination.
Note:- Possibly/Likely cannot used with may.
- Shall – used with first person i.e. I, We in future tense. All other persons use “will”.
Eg:- I shall go to hospital tomorrow and she will not come with me.
Eg:- Will I come ? – wrong
Eg:- Shall I come ? – correct
Note:- Shall can take second person and third person only in case of command, promise, threat, determination, compulsion, choice
- Command: You shall leave the auditorium.
- Promise: You shall be awarded with the sports car.
- Threat : Criminals shall be prosecuted
- Compulsion : You shall complete this construction assignment by this month.
- Choice : You shall hold the last tent for an hour before you do anything else.
- Would – used to express past habit.
Eg:- I would go to academy by bus.
- Would – preference/choice
Eg:- She would choose coffee over tea.
- Would – In Order to show a past routine action, use either would, used to and simple past tense.
Eg:- I used to go to sports club . I would return by metro. I played for two hours in the club.
- Would – used in imaginative sentences mainly in principal clause.
Eg:- If I were a princess, I would live in the Palace.
Eg:- If I were miss universe, I would have a miss universe crown.
Note:- “Was” is not used with the following words as was cannot take imaginatory sentences.
Imaginary words such as – I wish, as though if, If, would that and suppose.
- Would – also used as past tense of will.(mainly in case of narration)
Eg:- She said, “ she will write a note”. – Direct
Eg:- She said that she would write a note – Indirect
- Would – used for polite request in an interrogative sentences.
Eg:- Would you like to have a cup of coffee?
- Would – denotes possibility.
Eg:- She would be practicing for her dance competition.
- Would – Express Wish
Eg:- I wish, I would go to switzerland once.
- Ought to – Moral Obligation
Eg: – We ought to take a pledge in our school assembly.
- Dare/Need :-
- Dare and need are used as both main verb as well as modal auxiliary verbs.
- Dare shows challenge or courage while need denotes requirement.
Eg:- She needs me.
Eg:- He does not date to come here.
Note:- Need/dare cannot be used as modal auxiliary verbs in positive/affirmative sentences.